This picture taken on 12 October, 2017 shows Rohingya woman Hasina Aktar (R) and her mother in law Fatema (L) with the newborn baby Mohammed Jubayed on the way to their home in Kutupalong refugee camp in Ukhia. Photo: AFPThe afternoon call to prayer sounds out around the Kutupalong refugee camp as Hasina Aktar leaves the makeshift clinic where she gave birth 24 hours earlier, barely able to walk and carrying her infant son and major doubts about their future.The 20-year-old Rohingya woman and the infant Mohammed Jubayed face a life-and-death struggle, having been swept up in one of the biggest refugee crises in decades that has seen more than 530,000 Rohingya Muslims flee ethnic strife in Myanmar in the past eight weeks.Wrapped in a torn bath towel, tiny Mohammed’s skin is red with irritations caused by the heat and humidity that enshrouds the camps around the Bangladesh border town of Cox’s Bazar, where the persecuted minority have sought sanctuary.Keeping clean is a struggle and post-natal infections caused by malnutrition are rife among newborns. It is one of many threats in the teeming camps now home to the Muslims from Myanmar’s Rakhine state where the United Nations says there may have been ethnic cleansing.In front of the clinic, Aktar can barely speak to ask where her family are.She tried to call them on her phone, but no one answered. After 30 minutes, her husband and mother-in-law arrived — held up by torrential rain.The family disappeared into the camp city, its muddy paths stinking of urine, with naked children playing in dark puddles and a dense smoke rising from nearby hills as evening dinners were prepared.- No space to stand -Aktar struggled to keep up with her husband and his mother as they headed back to the hut with a black plastic roof and mud floor that is Mohammed’s new home.There were four adults and two children already living in the cramped space where it is difficult to stand upright.Fatima, the mother-in-law, proudly cradled the infant outside as neighbours came to congratulate her. “He has already lost weight since yesterday,” she told them. Aktar seemed on the verge of collapse and went inside the hut.On returning to check on the family two days later, an AFP correspondent found the father Mohammed Reaj had gone out looking for work.He had a job as a rickshaw driver but took two days off for the birth of his son, and when he returned the owner had given the taxi to another desperate candidate.The grandmother had gone to visit relatives in the neighbouring Balukhali camp. Without money, she had to walk the seven kilometers (4.5 miles) in the heat and was not expected back until the next day.Still wrapped in the towel, Mohammed Jubayed slept on a mat in a corner of the hut among pots and pans.”When the ground hurts him, he cries,” said the mother.He vomits when taking his mother’s milk and she was also worried about the white colour of his faeces. But overall Mohammed was surviving well even though he still has no clothes.”I can only feed him four or five times a day, I just don’t have enough milk,” said the mother, still exhausted from the birth.Nur Kalima, Aktar’s three-year-old daughter, made her presence felt in the background. She wants some of the attention being given to her new brother. But Aktar has to devote her time to making a meal of rice with a little salt.Getting wood to make a cooking fire is becoming increasingly difficult. When the family first arrived at Kutupalong four months ago, they collected wood in the hills. The trees have all been razed to make way for huts and wood has to be bought with cash.It is another burden for the family with little money.Amid the hammering of new shelters being built, and the horns and queues around humanitarian food trucks making a delivery, Mohammed Jubayed slept soundly for the moment with his little fists closed.
By MARTIN CRUTSINGER AP Economics WriterWASHINGTON (AP) — Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said Wednesday the redesign of the $20 bill to feature 19th century abolitionist leader Harriet Tubman has been delayed.The decision to replace Andrew Jackson, the nation’s seventh president, with Tubman on the $20 bill had been made by Mnuchin’s predecessor, former Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew, who had served in the Obama administration.Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin, however, said the delay in unveiling a $20 redesign had been prompted by thedecision to redesign the $10 bill and the $50 bill first for security reasons.Tubman’s fate had been in doubt since the 2016 campaign based on critical comments by then-candidate Donald Trump, who branded the move an act of “pure political correctness.”Mnuchin, however, said the delay in unveiling a $20 redesign had been prompted by the decision to redesign the $10 bill and the $50 bill first for security reasons. He said those bills will now be introduced before a redesigned $20 bill.Mnuchin made the announcement of the delay in response to questions from Rep. Ayanna Pressley, D-Mass., during an appearance before the House Financial Services Committee.In this May 22, 2019 file photo, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin testifies before the House Committee on Financial Services on Capitol Hill in Washington. (AP Photo/Carolyn Kaster, File)The unveiling of the redesigned $20 bill featuring Tubman, famous for her efforts spiriting slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad, had been timed by the Obama administration to coincide with the 100th anniversary in 2020 of passage of the 19th amendment giving women the right to vote.“Currently our currency does not reflect the diversity of people who have contributed to our great American history,” Pressley told Mnuchin.Mnuchin would not say whether he supported keeping Tubman on the redesigned $20. He said under the revised timeline, that decision will be left to whoever is Treasury secretary in 2026.Mnuchin said the redesigned $20 bill will not come out until 2028 which he said means that a final design for that bill will not be announced until 2026.He said the redesign of the bills was being done to introduce new security features to make it harder for the bills to be counterfeited. Based on the security issues, it had been decided to introduce redesigned $10 bills and $50 bills ahead of the $20 bill.“It is my responsibility to focus on the issue of counterfeiting and the security features,” Mnuchin said.During the 2016 campaign, Trump had praised Jackson for his “history of tremendous success” and suggested that Tubman could be placed on a different bill such as the $2 bill.Lew had arrived at the decision to displace Jackson on the $20 bill after first generating a loud outcry with his initial proposal to put a woman on the $10 bill, replacing Alexander Hamilton.Fans of Hamilton, a group that had grown with the popularity of the hit Broadway musical, felt it would be wrong to take him off the nation’s currency.
The highly reactive hydroxyl radicals typically appear in fractions of a second prior to combining with volatile organic chemicals and other gases which act as a cleanser for the atmosphere. Scientists found unusually high levels and surge in hydroxyl radical levels, but without an accompanying increase in ozone levels around noon time. The scientific team found hydroxyl radicals levels some three to five times more than would be expected in current models of atmospheric chemistry. Altogether, for some inexplicable reason or known source of hydroxyl produced an astounding 28 parts per billion each hour concentration of the chemical.The net effect is that a not yet discovered process has occurred in the Pearl River Delta that is producing an extremely high level of hydroxyl radicals. The next step of the research is to test samples of the air from the Pearl River region to see if light-stimulated reactions produce similar high readings of hydroxyl radicals under lab conditions. Thus far, the scientists are impressed with their unusual findings, but are only able to speculate on the source coming from a combination of anthropogenic sources, biogenic sources and gases found in the air surrounding the delta.Source: Amplified Trace Gas Removal in the Troposhere; www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/1164566 Chemists find important contributor to smog Credit: Wikipedia A team of atmospheric scientists have published their field study findings about unusual chemical reactions taking place in the Pearl River Delta in China during 2006. The Julich Research Center’s Institute for Tropospheric Chemistry in Germany and institutes in China and the USA participated in round the clock samplings of various atmospheric constituents in the Pearl River region located about 60 kilometers from Guangzhou noted for its high population and a repository for air borne pollutants wafting in from nearby industrial cities combined with volatile organic substances produced by local vegetation and trees. Explore further Citation: China Pearl River Delta Creating Large Amounts of Hydroxyl Radicals (2009, June 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-06-china-pearl-river-delta-large.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.